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Annual Meeting On Allergy and Immunology


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What can a person do to strengthen their immune system?

What can a person do to strengthen their immune system?

There are a number of reasons for a weakened immune system.
A common cause is.........sugar!
Sugar rich foods can reduce immunity by up to 50% or more ( it can cause a fifty- percent drop in the ability of white blood cells to engulf bacteria).

1. Reduce Sugar
So to help strengthen the immune system against flu or anything else; reduce your consumption of high sugar content foods, or just eliminate them all together.

2. Probiotics To boost immunity probiotics can be used to boost immune function.
Probiotics should help boost the immune system in general not just for Flu.
Many  of us suffer from poor digestion and reduced levels of friendly  bacteria in the gut. The most common killer of friendly gut bacteria is  Antibiotics.

Reference: Mark Givert (Quora)

How does the human adaptive immune response work?

How does the human adaptive immune response work?

Very basically it works through the production of antibodies , the important cell are the B lymphocytes and memory cells.

Essentially these cells produce antibodies that are selected for a specific antibody and to target antigens that have been identified by other cells.

The immune cells essentially produce a bunch of different antibodies to 'try out' the one that connects to an antigen is then 'selected' for and signals more of that antibody to be made.

Antibodies typically just attach to the outside of say bacteria which then signals to other immune cells to engulf it.

Reference: Dreezy Mida (Quora)

What are the causes of allergies?

What are the causes of allergies?

The causes of allergy are not precisely known. Often, people associate allergy with a genetic component. They claim that, if the mother has an allergic reaction towards a particular allergen, it passes on to the child. However, this is not necessarily true.

An individual can be allergic to any substance, which usually includes:

  • Pollens from plants, trees, grass, and weeds
  • Dust
  • Animal furs, dander, bugs
  • Cosmetics
  • Poisonous plants
  • Drugs like Penicillin, Sulfonamides, Salicylates, and local anesthetics
  • Serums, vaccines
  • Foods (Nuts, milk, seafood, egg, peas)
  • Heat, cold, and sunlight
  • Insects’ venom, cockroach calyx, dust mites, mosquitoes
  • Metals, detergents and much more.

What type of vitamins help children from a low immune system?

What type of vitamins help children from a low immune system?

It is always best to get vitamins from diet. So lots of berries for antioxidants effect. Fresh fruits and vegetables, not juices though. Oranges for vitamin C. Carrots for vitamin A. You could safely supplement vitamin D3.

 D supports the immune system. If you think you child has a low immune system because the child catches too many viruses, remember that childhood is the time when we develop immunities.

Reference: Tess Jensen (Quora)

What is vaccination?

What is vaccination?

Vaccination is the process of giving an antigenic material (the vaccine) so the body’s immune system will develop antibodies to that antigen. If the antigen is related to something pathological then the antibodies should provide protection against that pathogen.

First example dates back to late 18th century when Edward Jenner noticed that milkmaids who had previously had Cowpox did not subsequently get smallpox. I believe he inoculated himself and his children first to show that it worked. Smallpox has now been eradicated from the world.


Reference: Alex Crandon (Quora)

What is Allergy?

What is Allergy?

It is a negative reaction from the cell. The major cause of allergies is the antibody IgE. Like the IgMon the surface of limphosytes. IgE has a short membrane anchor on its stem, affixing it to the surface of white blood cells. When IgE locates a foregn molecule, like the one found on a pollen grain, it triggers the cell releasing histamine instead of more antibodies. Histamine initiates symptoms of an allergic response.

What Are The Major Immunology Pathways?

What Are The Major Immunology Pathways?

Traditionally, two major immunology pathways are recognised in the adaptive immune system. 

  1. Humoral immunity. That is antibody-mediated immunity. The antigen (by activating complex mechanisms and controls) stimulates B-lymphocytes to develop into plasma cells that excrete antibodies that disperse throughout the body into the blood and tissue fluids. Antibodies can inactivate toxins and viruses just by specifically binding to them. Furthermore, some antibodies when bound to bacteria can initiate bacterial lysis by the complement system. 
  2. Cellular immunity. Some antibodies activate T-lymphocytes. Mature CD8+ lymphocytes (also known as “killer cells”) have the ability to directly destroy virus-infected body cells to prevent the viruses from maturing, and may even kill cancer cells. Some of them will also develop into memory cells.
Reference: Ysterklou Botha (Quora)

 What is the CD3 cell in immunity?

What is the CD3 cell in immunity?

In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T cell co-receptor helps to activate both the cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ naive T cells) and also T helper cells (CD4+ naive T cells). It consists of a protein complex and is composed of four distinct chains.


Reference by Bhanita Sarmah (Quora) 

What is TCR in immunology?

What is TCR in immunology?

It’s the T (lymphocyte) cell receptor. It’s actually a complex of proteins that recognize specific antigens and creates a T-depended immune response, it helps to create monoclonal T cells to respond a single antigen, and indirectly to boost the B cell response!


Reference by  Rodrigo Jardon Magallan (Quora) 

Does appendicitis permanently weaken your immune system?

Does appendicitis permanently weaken your immune system?

This question sounds simple, but is tricky. I will try to answer it.

Appendicitis is the inflammation of appendix. It may be treated surgically or conservatively depending on the scenario.

Till recently appendix was considered a vestigial organ (of no function) which is little hard to “digest”. It was known previously it contains small amount of immune tissue called as GALT (Gut associated lymphoid tissue). But since whole gut has GALT it was never considered as a special function of appendix. Lately, researchers found out it also harbors good bacteria of intestine which help in digestion.

Reference by Suvrat Arya (Quora) 

 Is peanut butter good for arthritis?

Is peanut butter good for arthritis?

Eating too much peanut butter may not be good for arthritis because it contains saturated fats. Peanuts themselves have more of omega 6 fatty acids as compared to omega 3 fatty acids. Omega 6 fatty acids increase inflammation whereas omega 3 fatty acids decrease it.

I will talk about two common forms of arthritis in this context here.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is aging related wear and tear arthritis. Too much peanut butter due to its saturated fat content will cause weight gain and worsen symptoms. There is a notion that wear and tear arthritis like OA also has an inflammatory component.

Reference by Suvrat Arya (Quora) 

 What is an immunoglobulin, and what is its function in immunology?

What is an immunoglobulin, and what is its function in immunology?

In immunoglobulin, or antibody, is something that the white blood cells produce in response to sensing that there is a bacteria or virus invading they body. The attach to and fight that bacteria or virus. Exposure to bacteria and viruses are actually often beneficial so that the bodies white blood cells will work to make them


Reference by Sharon Kende (Quora) 

What happens if someone receives a blood transfusion with an immunological scar from syphilis?

What happens if someone receives a blood transfusion with an immunological scar from syphilis?

Secondary suphilis can lower the CD4+ (helper T cells) T el county that’s what you mean by an immunological scar. But that shouldn’t prevent a person from receiving a blood transfusion.


Reference by John Moorhead (Quora) 

How does our youth benefit from immunology?

How does our youth benefit from immunology?

Immunology is the study of the immune system which gives us greater understanding of the mechanism of immunity and how and why immune responses occur.

It also helps us to understand what is going on when it goes wrong.

So immunology helps to understand how we can improve diseases resistance and it can help us understand where research effort into disease resistance should be concentrated.

Understanding the immune system allows us to cope with rejection issues after organ transplants and offers avenues of research into immune deficiency diseases.

Reference by  Terence Kreft (Quora) 

How is the brain involved in immunology?

How is the brain involved in immunology?

It is a fantastic question. The field of neuroimmunology, a study of the interaction between the nervous system and the immune system, is (arguably) one of the most fascinating topics in life sciences nowadays.

One can look at your question - How is the brain involved in immunology? - in a couple of ways. What immune processes can and do take place in the brain? How does the immune response affect the central nervous system (and, thus, behavior)? How does the brain (and our thinking) affect the immune responses? All of these are super cool.

Reference by Aleksandra Prochera (Quora) 

 Immunology: Why does production of autoantibodies increase with age?

Immunology: Why does production of autoantibodies increase with age?

One of the main reasons is, likely, the same reason that allergic responses of all sorts tend to increase with age, sensitization. With some allergens one can build an immunity after exposure or desensitization, but in a more general sense repeated exposure to allergens tends to produce increased immune response. Autoimmunity is in fact an immune response just like allergy and mediated by much the same mechanisms. In autoimmunity the body is in essence treating itself as an allergen.


Reference by William E Donges III (Quora)

What causes autoimmune conditions?

What causes autoimmune conditions?

There are a number of causes to autoimmune disease, including food sensitivities, leaky gut syndrome, chronic infections, imbalances in immune regulation, environmental toxins and pollutants, chronic stress, hormone imbalance, and nutritional deficiencies. Addressing each of these causes means that autoimmune conditions can be treated and, in some cases, fully reversed. It all depends on how early it's caught and how severe it is. Addressing each of these root causes leads to different possible approaches to treating autoimmune conditions:


Reference by Akil Palanisamy (Quora) 

How much does blood work cost without insurance?

How much does blood work cost without insurance?

Regardless of whether you have insurance or not, the blood work will cost the same.

However, each individual blood test costs a different amount of money. So it is hard to say how much the blood work will cost, unless you knew the blood tests you had done and their prices. Then you could add up the cost of all of them together.


Reference by Melissa Wingfield, (Quora) 

What is the role of affinity maturation in immunology?

What is the role of affinity maturation in immunology?

In immunology, affinity maturation is the process by which Tfh cell-activated B cells produce antibodies with increased affinity for antigen during the course of an immune response. With repeated exposures to the same antigen, a host will produce antibodies of successively greater affinities. A secondary response can elicit antibodies with several fold greater affinity than in a primary response. Affinity maturation primarily occurs on surface immunoglobulin of germinal center B cells and as a direct result of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and selection by Tfh cells.

 

Reference by Leading Biology (Quora) 

Can allergy medications stop working?

Can allergy medications stop working?

Yes; they absolutely can. Depending on the allergy, medication, severity, existing or newly developed allergies, other medical conditions… there could be a few different answers; it’s all extremely individualized. As a Nurse and Health Care consultant; I’d need more details….. Have you ever thought of desensitization? (Allergist office) DO work quite well and can be permanent


Reference by LeslieRae DraneCave (Quora) 

Has climate change increased the danger of infectious diseases?

Has climate change increased the danger of infectious diseases?

In addition to Philip Rabe’s accurate answer on disease migration outward from the equator, there’s another thing occurring.

C. auris is a common agricultural fungus. It’s been controlled by fungicides for decades, and has developed resistance to most of them. It has multiple genetic strains, having unique variants on every continent except Antarctica.

Reference by Michael Barnard (Quora)

What are the differences between rheumatology and immunology?

What are the differences between rheumatology and immunology?

Some of the time composing the rheumatologist doctors in thane individual proclamation isn't simple. Clearly, this declaration must be curt and high-caliber simultaneously since there will be a lot of various competitors and their works could be better than yours. In this way, you need to make a decent attempt so as to get a spot for you which will engage you to have an incredible profession.


Reference by Zaki Shaikh (Quora) 

Does efficacy of immunology in oncology indicate that viruses may be cause of all types of cancers?

Does efficacy of immunology in oncology indicate that viruses may be cause of all types of cancers?

No.

There are some cancer-causing viruses such as human papilloma virus (HPV), rat sarcoma virus, mouse mammary tumor virus, rous sarcoma virus (chickens). In humans HPV is primary cause of cervical cancer since it actually carries oncogenes in it, and a couple other viruses can increase the risk of acquiring some cancers through less direct mechanisms. But other than that, no, most cancers are not caused by viruses.

Reference by Eric Nollet (Quora) 

How can you know if you’re allergic to the chlorine in swimming pools?

How can you know if you’re allergic to the chlorine in swimming pools?

You can't be allergic to chlorine, but you can be sensitive or have a reaction. If you are sensitive, should you stop swimming? No, instead you should find and treat the cause of your sensitivity and find relief.

Chlorine reactions may include itchy, red skin or hives (itchy bumps). This is not an allergy but is actually "irritant dermatitis" (like a chemical burn), caused by hypersensitivity to this natural irritant.

What you think is a chlorine allergy might actually be underlying asthma, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) or bronchospasm.

Reference by Robert Devor (Quora) 

Which one is harder, biochemistry or immunology?

Which one is harder, biochemistry or immunology?

Everyone has a talent or more. Some are very good at math and for some it is hard. Only you know the answer. Biochemistry is the study of reactions in the context of biological systems. Immunology is the study of cells that fight infections, but also participate in other physiological processes. Some people are talented at one, the other and few at both.


Reference by Reggie Aurora (Quora) 

Where did begin first imnology in the world?

Where did begin first imnology in the world?

I think you want me to tell about immunology.

Immunology started in the last quarter of the nineteenth century with two major discoveries.

The first of these was Elias Metchnikff's (1845–1916) identification of phagocytic cells, which engulf and destroy invading pathogens. This laid the basis for innate immunity.

The second discovery was Emil Behring's (1854–1917) and Paul Ehrlich's (1854–1915) identification of antibodies, which neutralize microbial toxins .

Reference by Shloak Vatsal (Quora) 

What is the immunology treatment for cancer?

What is the immunology treatment for cancer?

Immunology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of the immune system, which protects our body from infection.

Immunology treatment for cancer is a biologic therapy, is a type of cancer treatment which will help your body fight cancer. This is accomplished by artificial stimulation of your immune system to fight the cancer cells.

Reference by Yashoda Hospitals (Quora) 

If the HIV+ blood mixed with normal saline, less than a drop got in my eyes, are there any chances t

If the HIV+ blood mixed with normal saline, less than a drop got in my eyes, are there any chances t

Very unlikely though not impossible.

Of course, it depends on

  • proportion of saline:blood
  • viral load of the HIV+ blood
  • luck

The less blood and the less viral load the lower the risk. Also, the amount of liquid in that “less than a drop” is important.

Overall, eye exposures are considered low-risk exposures, though Post-Exposure Prophylaxis is frequently recommended.

Finally, if this may be a possibility in your work… please wear a face shield.

Reference by Roberto Viau (Quora) 

Do cytokines consider humoral innate or humoral adaptive immunity?

Do cytokines consider humoral innate or humoral adaptive immunity?

Snarky response first: Cytokines are secreted proteins that let the immune cells “talk” to each other. They don’t consider anything…they don’t have brains.

For-real response: Yes. Cytokines are small, can be released into the blood stream, and do partition with the serum if you separate blood. That makes them part of the humoral response (i.e. transferable by serum). Now to get to the technical part - they are part of the adaptive response (i.e. T cell help is often in the form of cytokines (TGF-B, IL-4, etc) that are released to “help” B cells differentiate and proliferate (and class-switch

Reference by Nan Boury (Quora) 

What can I say to people who are still against the measles vaccination?

What can I say to people who are still against the measles vaccination?

There’s probably no point discussing the social consequences of not immunising their child. They probably don’t care that if their otherwise healthy kid contracts measles and passes it onto a child recovering from an illness serious enough to require immunological treatment, the outcome for that child is often life-changing (or life-ending).

They also either don’t understand just how serious measles can be, possibly because they are a generation or two removed from full-on measles epidemics and because grandpa and grandma survived the measles, how hard can it be?

I’d say “ask grandpa and grandma”. Don’t just ask grandpa and grandma about what it was like for them (because, let’s face it… they survived and recovered), ask what it was like for everyone. Ask them how many kids didn’t come back to school after the epidemic, how many bright kids came back ‘different’ or how many formerly sporty kids became the ‘puffed out’ kid who could barely run more than 10 feet. Find out how many of them came back with poor eyesight, and then follow up to see how many of them either ended up dying young or not having kids themselves.

Reference by Alan Sircom (Quora) 

What conditions come with autoimmune arthritis with rashes?

What conditions come with autoimmune arthritis with rashes?

The information here is inadequate to comment. To answer this I must know the type and pattern of arthritis and most importantly the type of skin rash (distribution, appearance, associated features etc).

But to just answer broadly, here is a list of conditions which cause both autoimmune arthritis and rash. In no way this list can replace a detailed evaluation by a rheumatologist.

Lupus/SLE

Sjogren’s syndrome

Psoriatic arthritis

Sarcoidosis

Mixed connective tissue disease

Spondyloarthritis with IgA vasculitis

Reactive arthritis

IgA vasculitis

Rheumatoid arthritis with cutaneous vasculitis

Vasculitis

Systemic sclerosis

Dermatomyositis

Behcet’s disease

Still’s disease

Schnitzler syndrome

Autoinflammatory syndromes

Multicentric Reticulohistiocytosis
Reference by Suvrat Arya (Quora) 

Assuming no vaccine is found, how do pandemics eventually stop?

Assuming no vaccine is found, how do pandemics eventually stop?

If enough people are exposed to a virus and survive to develop immunity, the spread of the virus dies down because there are no hosts available to transmit the disease to others. Unfortunately, even when a pandemic virus is diminished, it is not eradicated — as we have seen with the recent outbreaks of measles and mumps.

Vaccines accelerate time to burn out. As with polio — a horrible disease that left most survivors crippled for life. The vaccine reduced the pool of vulnerable children in areas where 95% or more of the children were vaccinated. The incidence of polio dropped rapidly — thanks the vaccine companies that produced huge amounts of the vaccine and thanks to the school nurses (remember them?) who gave children, with parental encouragement, the polio vaccine.

Reference by Victoria Rehn (Quora)

Is the immune response triggered by antibodies?

Is the immune response triggered by antibodies?

While an “immune response” is classically defined as a reaction to an immunogen, the response itself is multi-faceted and some parts are indeed triggered by antibody binding to antigen. A few examples: Mast cell degranulation and subsequent histamine release in response to immunoglobulin E binding to allergen. Activation of the complement cascade via immunoglobulin M binding to antigen or immunoglobulin G forming immune complexes. This leads to further inflammation and activation of monocytes/macrophages and influx of neutrophils Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity induced by immunoglobulin G binding to a cell and subsequent natural killer-cell perforin/granzyme release.


Reference by Keri Smith (Quora) 

How do you create a test to see if someone is infected with a virus?

How do you create a test to see if someone is infected with a virus?

There are three general classes of kits. Nucleic avid based kits use molecular biology to look for the Nucleic acid of the virus. Many of these use some form of PCR such as endpoint PCR, qPCR or digital PCR. But there are other methods such as LAMP which are isothermal - PCR requires cycling the temperature whereas isothermal methods do not. The predominant test for COVID-19 is a PCR-based test (A qPCR (aka RT-PCR aka rRT-PCR) Explainer). A second set of kits look for your immune response to the virus. The ELISA tests for HIV fall into this category - synthetic HIV proteins in the test bind antibodies against it in a positive sample; an animal antibody against human antibodies binds and is tied to an enzyme that can generate a colorimetric readout.


Reference by Keith Robison (Quora)

Why is Coronavirus concerning for people with compromised immune systems?

Why is Coronavirus concerning for people with compromised immune systems?

SUNIL If you do not understand the concept of immunology then perhaps you are one of those who may be compromised . The news indicates that Indonesia is free from the virus . It’s not free from the virus . their culture is basically a parallel to that shown in SLUMDOG MILLIONAIRE THEIR IMMUNE SYSTEM ARE ROBUST and the virus cannot possibly get a grip on the population.


Reference by Jay Jokhan (Quora) 

Are vaccines being developed for coronavirus?

Are vaccines being developed for coronavirus?

Scientists/researchers from Australia, China, Germany, India, Israel, UK and USA are all busy directing their resources to nail CV. As per ToI news report about 10 days ago a Pune Research institute (in collaboration with a US based institute) has announced that a vaccine will be ready by early 2022 repeat 2022.


Reference by Thyaga Rajan (Quora) 

Is there a vaccine to protect people from the novel Corona Virus (NCOV)?

Is there a vaccine to protect people from the novel Corona Virus (NCOV)?

No vaccine yet, but China and now Australia both have sequenced the virus and that information (especially from Australia who has offered the sequence to other labs) will be significant in the development and production of a vaccine. Development and production of vaccines are so much faster in this age of genetic engineering and biopharmaceutical production. It will still take months to do safety and efficacy testing before human use.


Reference  by Donald Pearline (Quora)

Why are males more susceptible to covid-19?

Why are males more susceptible to covid-19?

Men tend to fare worse than women when it comes to a wide variety of illnesses. There are multiple reasons why this is the case, but one of the big ones is genetics. Many of the genes that control our immune system are housed in the X chromosome. Women have two X chromosomes whereas men only have one. Having two X chromosomes means they have more immune system related genes, which increases the odds that they posses a gene that makes them better at combating specific diseases.


Reference by Tim Tully (Quora)