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What is the relationship between quantum physics and organic chemistry

What is the relationship between quantum physics and organic chemistry

Many org reactions like pericyclic reactions are ecplained by ‘symmetry considerations', many of the opto electronic props, spectroscopic props are also explained by quantum physics.

Reference: Charles Kanakam, former Professor of Chemistry (Quora)

What is the Saytzeff rule in organic chemistry?

What is the Saytzeff rule in organic chemistry?

According to Saytzeff rule "In dehydrohalogenation reactions, the preferred product is that alkene which has the greater number of alkyl groups attached to the doubly bonded carbon atoms." For example: The dehydrohalogenation of 2-bromobutane yields two products 1-butene and 2-butene.

Reference: Noopur Gaur, former Student (Quora)


What is the importance of organic chemistry?

What is the importance of organic chemistry?

Organic chemistry - the study of chemicals based on carbon and carbon chains.

Why is it important? You. You are a meat bag of organic chemicals. The food you eat is made up of organic chemicals.

I was told, back in the ‘90’s that there were about a million new organic chemicals made every year, that had never been made before. That is every year. I don’t believe it has slowed down. Millions of new chemicals, with different properties, uses, effects, dangers etc. We never saw the issues coming with DDT, Thalidomide, Agent orange, single use plastics, antibiotic resistance, and many others - or at least, some saw the issues coming, but were shut down by the corporations or governments.

Organic chemistry can be seriously complex and messy, with some incredibly reactive chemicals used. Some are wonderfully flammable, or (especially where nitrogen is involved) somewhat spontaneously explosive. Many other organic chemicals are incredibly inert.

In a way, the area is a little like lego chemistry - grab this chain, add that functional group, use another functional group as a block to allow another chain to be added, and there you have it, a new chemical. You can take a chemical that smells like purified bottled vomit, and mix it with an alcohol, heat it with some concentrated sulfuric acid - the product is neutral in pH and smells like bananas, and is used as a flavouring for confectionary.

Organic chemistry is very important, and is driving a lot of development in the technological world. However, unless you have an interest in knowledge, technology, chemistry, engineering, medicine, agriculture, then it isn’t going to be important for you.

Reference: Adrian Bell, Chemistry Teacher at Secondary School Education (Quora)

What is the dibenzalidin derivative of urea?

What is the dibenzalidin derivative of urea?

Benzylidene compounds are, formally speaking, derivatives of benzylidene, although few are prepared from the carbene. Benzylidene acetal is a protecting group in synthetic organic chemistry of the form PhCH(OR)2. For example, 4,6-O-benzylidene-glucopyranose is a glucose derivative. Benzylidene is an archaic term for compounds of the type PhCHX2 and PhCH= substituents (Ph = C6H5). For example, dibenzylideneacetone is (PhCH=CH)2CO. Benzal chloride, PhCHCl2, is alternatively named benzylidene chloride.

Benzylidene is the molecule C6H5CH. It is a triplet carbene (CAS RN 3101-08-4). It is generated by irradiation of phenyldiazomethane.

According to a research Urea nitrate is found to be an efficient catalyst for the imino Diels-Alder reaction of aldimines with cyclopentadiene, 3,4-dihydropyran and dihydrofuran . One pot synthesis of cyclopentaquinolines from benzaldehyde, aromatic amines with cyclopentadiene catalyzed by urea nitrate is also found.

Reference: Ajay Komuravelli, studied Mechanical Engineering (Quora)

Is science the only way of connecting with the mystery of existence?

Is science the only way of connecting with the mystery of existence?

There is no ‘mystery’ of existence, life is here because conditions on this planet were such that organic chemistry could produce self-replicating molecules which eventually formed into cells that then combined to form multicellular organisms. And yes, Science has proven to be the most reliable way to learn about reality.

Reference: Chris Hirst, Science and technology enthusiast and supporter (Quora)


What fields of organic chemistry exist and how do they differ?

What fields of organic chemistry exist and how do they differ?

Organic chemistry is one of the major branches of chemistry. The others primarily being inorganic and physical chemistry. Organic chemistry revolves around the study of C and H, and often in various combinations with the elements O, N, S, P and the halogens (often involving Cl, Br). The combination of these later elements with C and H, has broadly speaking a direct correlation with the major industries whereby organic chemistry sub-branches are observed eg pharmaceutical, petrochemical and biochemistry. Essentially organic chemistry studies the structure and behavior of these different types of molecules in these sub-branches.

Reference: Patrick Fernandez, DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Chemistry, Curtin Uni (1992)

What does the term “silicon-based life form” actually mean?

What does the term “silicon-based life form” actually mean?

Carbon is a particularly interesting element form a chemistry perspective. It basically has 4 “slots” for covalent bond with other atoms, and is equally happy using those to give up electrons or gain electrons to balance itself out. Other elements tend to have fewer bonds, and have a preference for either giving or receiving. The consequence of this is that carbon can form long chains, loops, and other complex structures, with other elements bonding to it at various places. This complexity actually gives rise to organic chemistry - an entire field of chemistry devoted to these carbon based molexules, because you have to dealnwkth then differently than simple compounds. You can write most compounds as something like H20, and its perfectly descriptive. You know how much of what element is present, and thats often all that matterst. But many organic chemicals would shsre the same formula at that level of detail, but be completely different. You actually have to mao put the structure of the molecules.

This complexity is the basis of life. Its the basis behind proteins, lipids(fats) and carbohydrates, which form organic matter.That's what “carbon - based lifeform” means. Thr unique chemical properties of carbon allow it to underpin most of the molecules involved. But look at the periodic table. Elements on the same column tend to have very similar chemical properties, as that determines hie many electrons they have relative to their outer shell (its why those columns exist in the first place) . If you look below carbon, you find silicon. Hence, silicon is very similar to carbon. It also has 4 “slots” and can donate or receive electrons. So, in theory, you could have life that uses silicon in the same way we use carbon, forming long chains, loops, and complex structures with silicon. Then that life would be “silicon based”. It doesn't mean they would be rocky, despite what some science fiction seems to think, any more than we are similar to graphite or diamonds. It is worth noting that silicone isn't perfectly identical to carbon - its a physically bigger atom, and heavier, so its bonds are weaker, and hence thr larger molecules don't hold together as well. This could be a deal breaker, rendering silicon base life impossible.. Or it may not. We aren't really sure.

Reference: Dean Carpenter, Hobbyist Physicist (Quora)

What are the differences between biochemistry, biological chemistry, and chemical biology?

What are the differences between biochemistry, biological chemistry, and chemical biology?

Chemical biology is considered by most to be a sub-field of chemistry. I heard it explained once like this, that chemical biologists seek to make chemical tools to study biological questions. Examples include the synthesis of peptides with unnatural amino acids, bio-orthogonal conjugation reactions to selectively label proteins inside a cell, synthesis of DNA or RNA analogues with new properties, and design of artificial polyamide transcription factors. Optogenetics is another really interesting subject that falls into the realm of chemical biology.

Some will say that biochemistry is chiefly concerned with reconstructing biomolecular processes, that is, reducing a cellular phenomenon down to it’s individual component molecules and reactions in order to understand how it happens. Biochemistry lays the biggest claim on the field of enzymology, and “classical” biochemical experiments often involved identifying “active substances” in extracts of cells. The word “enzyme” actually means “in yeast,” named after the mysterious substance in yeast extract that ferments sugar. Maturation promoting factor (MPF) was identified in extracts of frog eggs, as a substance that induced mitosis in cells. Biochemistry is also heavily dependent upon structural biology, using techniques like x-ray crystallography and NMR to understand how biomolecules’ structures determine their functions.

“Biological chemistry” is a term that seems to be used less and less nowadays, and interchangeably with “biochemistry.” To muddle the situation even more, my own university has a Department of Biochemistry and a Department of Biomolecular Chemistry. What’s the difference? It is often a historical question. At the University of Wisconsin, for example, Biochemistry is part of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (and was originally called “Agricultural Chemistry” at its inception a hundred years ago), but Biomolecular Chemistry is part of the Medical School. They recently unified into one umbrella program, called the Integrated Program in Biochemistry.

In short, all these fields are interdisciplinary, and sometimes the only thing that distinguishes them from one another is the “lean” towards biology vs. chemistry, the areas of active investigation, and the experimental methods employed. You’re bound to get your feet wet with work outside your mother field eventually. I’ve been in a Biochemistry graduate program for a year, but I’ve done things that clearly qualify as Chemical Biology, Synthetic Biology, Molecular Biology, and Biophysical Chemistry. That’s what makes interdisciplinary research so exciting! You get to try a little bit of everything.

Reference:  Evan Glasgow, Graduate Student in Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin (Quora)

What is the basic principle of NMR in inorganic or organic chemistry?

What is the basic principle of NMR in inorganic or organic chemistry?

The basic principle behind NMR spectroscopy of inorganic compounds comes from the spin of a nucleus and it generates a magnetic field. Without an external applied magnetic field, the nuclear spins are random in directions. Many nuclei have spin and all nuclei are electrically charged. If an external magnetic field is applied, an energy transfer is possible between the base energy to a higher energy level (generally a single energy gap).

NMR spectroscopy is extremely useful for identification and analysis of organic compounds. In NMR spectroscopy, we measure the energy required to change the alignment of magnetic nuclei in a magnetic field.

Reference: Prasanth Purayattu, Ph.D Master Organic Chemistry & Master of Business Administration Degrees (1983) (Quora)

Where does carbon come from that is also in glucose?

Where does carbon come from that is also in glucose?

Like nearly all carbon in all life forms, it comes from the Carbon Dioxide in the air. 6 molecules of carbon dioxide react with 6 molecules of water (H2O) and produce 3 molecules of oxygen (O2) and 1 molecule of Glucose. Glucose forms the basis of cellulose and most of the rest of the mass of the plant. The non-water mass of all plants (and animals and PEOPLE) is greater than 90% derived indirectly or directly in the case of plants from CO2 in the air itself. Without the measly 0.04% of CO2 in the air, ALL plants would die and so would we. THINK how close we are to death. 0.04% is WAY TOO LOW for a healthy biosphere. During the last glacial maximum (about 18,000 years ago) the CO2 level dropped to desperately LOW levels, i.e. 0.018%. No C3 plants could survive at that level. Even the “more efficient” C4 plants are much less productive at that level.

I don’t understand why so many people focus on the purported warming effects of CO2 levels and don’t seem to even think about the effects on plant life!!! Isn’t it obvious that we need a LOT more CO2 in the air????

Life is precious and CO2 is the stuff of life. There is NOTHING better that we could do for the biosphere and for the rest of life on this planet and for US, than to INCREASE the amount of CO2 in the air. IF the ice sheets start to move again (and they are due about now), they will cool the oceans which will withdraw more CO2 from the air and then the killing of plant life will happen again IF we can’t compensate for it by increases in the CO2 level. So, using the PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE we should be INCREASING the amount of CO2 in the air as much as we can (on balance a HUGE advantage to the biosphere, and especially if it warms up!!) in case the Ice Sheets begin to move. We don’t know when they might do that. However, we do know that we have been in an Ice Age (ice sheets at the North and South pole) for the last 2.6 million years. The last one took more than 30 million years to get to the “other side”. We wouldn’t survive another glaciation like the Wisconsin without massive death on a planetary scale. CO2 increases may very well be the ONLY way to prevent a near extinction of humanity. INCREASE CO2 while you can!!!

Reference: Ian Wylie, M.Sc Chemistry & Physics, Carleton University (1984) (Quora)

What Is Hydrogen Water?

What Is Hydrogen Water?

Hydrogen water is simply pure water with extra hydrogen molecules added to it. Hydrogen (H2) is the most abundant molecule in the universe. It’s an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas. But only in 2007 did a team in Japan discover that inhaled hydrogen gas could act as an antioxidant and protect the brain from free radicals. This sparked the interest in its potential health benefits worldwide and led to some breakthrough research.

Water molecules consist of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. However, there aren’t any free hydrogen molecules that can be used by the body as it is bound to oxygen. Therefore, infuse water with additional hydrogen produces benefits that plain water cannot deliver.

Hydrogen is the smallest existent gas molecule. Because of this unique property, molecular hydrogen could penetrate into virtually every organ and cell in the body (including the brain) where it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, weight-loss, and anti-allergy activity. Molecular hydrogen seems like the perfect therapeutic the world has been eagerly searching for – with virtually no side effects!

Reference: Jordan Jhon, Article Writer at Fiverr (2015-present) (Quora)

What is the most concentrated acid?

What is the most concentrated acid?

All the ones which exist as pure compounds. Thus pure acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is very close to 100%.

Of the common laboratory acids, sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric and acetic acid can be dealt with as pure liquids with no water. However hydrochloric acid is a solution of HCl gas in water. Pure HCl is a gas, which is used industrially, and if you lower the temperature and/or apply sufficient pressure it can be used as a liquid.

Concentrated sulfuric acid is 96 or 98%, which is usually strong enough. Concentrated nitric acid is usually 68% because this is the azeotrope, which means it is the concentration you get by distillation of a weaker solution. 98% is called fuming nitric acid because of the choking fumes of NO2 it tends to give off by decomposition. Anhydrous nitric acid is 99.9%.

Concentrated HCl is usually about 36%. This is for two reasons. Firstly the higher the concentration the more fumes that are given off. Secondly this means that 100 g of the liquid contains 1 mole of HCl near enough.

I have done a little work with anhydrous acid compounds as solvents for inorganic chemistry.

You may care to know that so-called fuming sulfuric acid consists of SO3 dissolved in H2SO4. If you were foolish to add water, the SO3 reacts to form more H2SO4. The strength of fuming sulfuric acid is therefore sometimes described as 150% etc.

Reference: Martin J Pitt, Chartered Chemist and Chartered Chemical Engineer (Quora)

What is the chemical formula for halides in organic chemistry?

What is the chemical formula for halides in organic chemistry?

“halides” is a synonym for the negative ions of the halogen elements. The halogens are the elements in group 17 of the periodic table (fluorine, chlorine bromine, and iodine). Therefore the halides are F-, Cl-, Br-, and I-, and the names of these ions are: fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide.

Reference: Susan Haney, MS from California Institute of Technology

Does hyponitrite exist? If yes then what is its formula

Does hyponitrite exist? If yes then what is its formula

From Hyponitrite - Wikipedia: “In chemistry, hyponitrite may refer to the anion N2O2(2?) ([ON=NO](2?), or to any ionic compound that contains it. In organic chemistry, it may also refer to the group ?O?N=N?O?, or any organic compound with the generic formula R1?O?N=N?O?R2, where R1 and R2 are organic groups. Such compounds can be viewed as salts and esters of respectively hypo nitrous acid H2N2O2 or HON=NOH.

An acid hyponitrite is an ionic compound with the anion HN2O2(1-) ([HON=NO](1-).”

Reference: Mark B Fischer, B.S. Chemistry, U of California; Ph.D. Inorganic Chemistry, U of Wisconsin-Madison

Are biology and biochemistry the same?

Are biology and biochemistry the same?

Of course not. Biochemistry is about the chemistry of biology in part. It is more chemistry and deals with metabolic pathways, enzyme reactions and kinetics, molecular biology, and related chemistry of biological systems. Biology is different altogether and addresses the living organism.

Reference: Colin Banks, studied Biochemistry & Chemistry at University of Bristol (1979) (Quora)

What is the chemical name for BiCl3?

What is the chemical name for BiCl3?

Its chemical name is bismuth chloride. It is used as a catalyst in organic chemistry. it is used to make other bismuth compounds.

Reference: Saaurav Chahar, studied at Jaat School (Quora)

With this molecule the parent chain can either continue towards the carboxyl group meaning the metha

With this molecule the parent chain can either continue towards the carboxyl group meaning the metha

There is a series of priorities when determining carbon chain numbering. If your molecule is a carbon chain that has a methoxy (methanol) group and an acid group, the acid takes priority so it will be some sort of methoxy acid. Something like 4-methoxydecanoic acid. Here’s a good primer on naming priority to get you started:

Table of Functional Group Priorities for Nomenclature – Master Organic Chemistry

Reference: Kevin Wilkinson, Ph. D. Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (2007) (Quora)

What is lambda max in organic chemistry?

What is lambda max in organic chemistry?

There are several analytical tools used in Organic Chemistry. For example, NMR in units of [ppm], IR in reciprocal frequency [cm^-1] or wavenumber. Mass spectrometry (MS) has units of m/z (amu or Daltons).

UV-VIS or ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy is a useful tool and has units of distance [nm]. It can be used to determine the presence of conjugated systems. Such systems have a commonality: continuous arrays of sp2 carbons. This is the “cloud” of electrons density that is delocalized and gives way to resonance and creates color in molecules that we perceive.

This is as a courtesy just two such atoms in ethene. imagine many more strung together or arranged in a ring like benzene. This is stabilizing and therefore raises the wavelength. Each additional piece makes it loooonger.

Reference: David Min, PhD Chemistry, Colorado School of Mines (2015) (Quora)

Is it true that a gram of uranium is 20 billion calories?

Is it true that a gram of uranium is 20 billion calories?

No.

Uranium is not organic, that is, a living form that has metabolic functions and subject to death, so it has no carbon-based chemistry or substances that a person could utilize as energy.

Perhaps you mean, is the energy potential in a gram of uranium equivalent to 20 billion calories, I don’t know.

But I like the way you think.

Reference: George Ellis, studied at University of Southern Colorado, Pueblo, CO (1977)

What element can form the strongest bond while still remaining polar?

What element can form the strongest bond while still remaining polar?

An element doesn’t “remain polar”. All elements are nonpolar, because in order for something to be polar, you need to have a separation of charge. Electrons in an atom exist in a spherical, symmetrical cloud and don’t exhibit “polarity”. Even elements which are diatomic in nature, such as iodine, chlorine, oxygen, and nitrogen, are all nonpolar molecules because there’s no “difference” between the atoms such that they could sustain or develop a dipole. They might become polar if they become unsymmetrical in some way, like passing into a strongly charged field of another molecule or losing an electron to form a radical species, but inherently, elements are nonpolar.

You might want to consider rephrasing your question to make it answerable.

Reference: Matt Harbowy, Back off, I'm a scientist. (former PhD student, Chemistry, Cornell University, 1991-1993) (Quora)

What is carbocynation of olefins?

What is carbocynation of olefins?

Olefin, also called alkene, compound made up of hydrogen and carbon that contains one or more pairs of carbon atoms linked by a double bond. Olefins are examples of unsaturated hydrocarbons (compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon and at least one double or triple bond).

Carbonation is the chemical reaction of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.

Carbocynation. There does not appear to be this chemistry term. Can you please clarify, how you came across this term. Thanks.

Cynation. In organic synthesis, cyanation is the attachment or substitution of a cyanide group on various molecular substrates. Such transformations are high-value because they offer formation of a C-C bond, and appendment of a highly-oxidized nitrile carbon suitable for further synthetic manipulation.

The word “cynation” has been added to this response.

Look forward to your response. Cheers.

Reference: Erii Mascar, former Accountant who likes to mess around in the kitchen (1980-2020) (Quora)

Is CH4 to CO2 oxidation or reduction?

Is CH4 to CO2 oxidation or reduction?

definitely an oxidation. From what I know, methane (CH4) is the most reduced form of Carbon. And Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the most oxidized form.

In organic chemistry, you are reducing a molecule or doing a reduction reaction when :

You add hydrogen or lose oxygen.

And you are oxidizing a molecule or doing an oxidation reaction when:

You add oxygen or lose hydrogen.

that being said, if your starting material has four hydrogens and zero oxygens and your product has two oxygens and zero hydrogen, you have done an oxidation.

So, in the example provide, methane is being oxidized to carbon dioxide.

Reference: Summer Brown, studies Chemistry & History at University of Redlands (2022) (Quora)

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